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From then until 1500 CE, social organization of the region fragmented into much smaller units and social structure became much less complex.
The Mayan civilization had extensive trade networks and large markets trading in goods such as animal skins, indigo, amber, vanilla and quetzal feathers.
The Spanish colonial government then sent a new expedition under Diego de Mazariegos.
Mazariegos had more success than his predecessor, but many indigenes preferred to commit suicide rather than submit to the Spanish.
In Chiapas, Mayan sites are concentrated along the state's borders with Tabasco and Guatemala, near Mayan sites in those entities. At its height, it had large cities, a writing system, and development of scientific knowledge, such as mathematics and astronomy.
Cities were centered on large political and ceremonial structures elaborately decorated with murals and inscriptions.
Rainfall decreases moving towards the Pacific Ocean, but it is still abundant enough to allow the farming of bananas and many other tropical crops near Tapachula.
On the several parallel "sierras" or mountain ranges running along the center of Chiapas, climate can be quite temperate and foggy, allowing the development of cloud forests like those of the Reserva de la Biosfera el Triunfo, home to a handful of resplendent quetzals and horned guans.There is speculation that these were the forefathers of the Olmec, migrating across the Grijalva Valley and onto the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico to the north, which was Olmec territory.One of these people's ancient cities is now the archeological site of Chiapa de Corzo, in which was found the oldest calendar known on a piece of ceramic with a date of 36 BCE.The first military incursion was headed by Luis Marín, who arrived in 1523.For three years, Marín was able to subjugate a number of the local peoples, but met with fierce resistance from the Tzotzils in the highlands. Other important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, Tapachula, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Comitán and Arriaga.